Read information on Environment and Ecology topic for all competitive exams- UPSC, SSC, Banking. Environment and Ecology is a very important topic for UPSC Aspirants.
1.AMAZON FIRES (Environment and Ecology)
Over the last several days, the Amazon rainforest has been burning – mostly caused by farmers clearing land – at a rate that has alarmed environmentalists and governments worldwide.
Trend this year:
- There have been more than 72,800 fires in Brazil this year,
- with more than half in the Amazon region —
- an 80% increase compared with the same period last year — according to the country’s National Institute for Space Research (INPE).
- Brazil’s Amazon has lost more than 344,500 hectares (1,330 square miles) of forest cover between January and June, according to INPE.
- Forest fires are common in the Amazon during the dry season, which runs from July to October.
- Usually, they can be caused by naturally occurring events.
- Such as by lightning strikes, but also by farmers and loggers clearing land for crops or grazing.
- However, activists also blame Brazil’s far-right president, Jair Bolsonaro, who has encouraged such tree-clearing activities for agriculture and mining.
- The Amazon, the world’s largest rainforest,
- Roughly half the size of the United States and produces 20 percent of the oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere.
- it is a repository of rich biodiversity and is also home to indigenous communities whose life is now under threat.
- Certainly, Carbon intake by the Amazon basin matches the emissions released by nations in the basin. The burning of forests, therefore, implies additional carbon emissions.
- Amazon rainforest influences the water cycle not only on a regional scale but also on a global scale. Consequently, The rain produced by the Amazon travels through the region and even reaches the Andes mountain range
2.AIR QUALITY MONITORING SENSORS (Environment and Ecology)
The Union Environment Ministry has tasked the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research –National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL) with certifying air quality monitoring instruments.
- The Central Government has designated the CSIR-NPL as a national verification agency for certifying instruments and equipment for monitoring emissions and ambient air.
- CSIR-NPL shall develop the necessary infrastructure, management system, testing and certification facilities conforming to international standards.
- Consequently, This step is in anticipation of rising demand by States — against the backdrop of the National Clean Air Campaign — for low-cost air quality monitoring instruments that can monitor levels of nitrous oxides, ozone, and particulate matter.
Important Info :
National Clean Air Campaign?
- The Centre in January 2019 launched a National Clean Air Campaign to reduce particulate matter (PM) pollution by 20%-30% in at least 102 cities by 2024.
- Concurrently, this calls for a vast monitoring network of sensors that can capture the rapid fluctuations of pollutants, necessary to ascertain how these gases and particles affected health.
- Certainly, Delhi leads the numbers of cities, with around 35 air quality sensors
3. BLUE WHALE (Environment and Ecology)
A young biologist has recreated a blue whale from the skeletal remains of dead blue whales washed ashore on the Andhra Pradesh coast, replicating its natural anatomy structure.
- Common Name: Blue whale; Baleine Bleue (Fr); Ballena Azul (Sp).
- Scientific Name: Balaenoptera musculus.
- Location: In addition, they are found in all oceans except enclosed seas and the Arctic.
- Size: The blue whale is the largest animal ever known to have existed. they can weigh up to 200 tonnes (whereas an adult male African elephant weighs 6 tonnes).
- Voice: Blue whales are the loudest animals on earth and their calls are louder than a jet engine: reaching 188 decibels, while a jet’s engine hit ‘just’ 140 decibels.
- Colour: Specifically, Blue whales are a lightly mottled blue-grey, with light grey or yellow-white undersides.
- Population: 10,000-25,000 individuals
- IUCN Status: Endangered
- In India, the blue whale falls in Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
The Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu has embarked on creating a database of the Chippiparai by implanting microchips in 100 of these dogs.
- Certainly, the Chippiparai breed of dogs belongs to the Tamil Nadu region of South India. A few of them also reside in Kerela, around Periyar Lake.
- Basically, the Chippiparai gets its name from the town that it was developed in, Chippiparai, in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India
- Specifically, Chippiparai dogs are hunters; Moreover, they are sighthounds who depend on their sense of sight and speed to spot, chase and kill the prey. they can effectively hunt deer, wild boar, and hare.
- Certainly, the typical color is a fawn, black, reddish-brown, black tinged coat, silver-grey, with very limited or no white markings and long curved tail.
Important Info :
Certainly, Microchipping is mandatory for dogs that are members of the Kennel Club of India and the initiative of the Tirunelveli College has gained Chippiparai a status on a par with elite exotic dog breeds in the country.